Whole Genome Sequencing
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) identifies almost all changes in a patient’s DNA by sequencing both the entire protein coding and the non-coding regions of the genome. It provides for instance detailed information on the thousands of genes involved in normal growth, development, and all of the "silent" genomic regions simultaneously.
Today there are millions of patients suffering from incorrectly diagnosed or undiagnosed genetic diseases because of insufficient genetic testing. Although in certain cases approaches like single gene testing, panel testing or microarrays are able to identify the cause of a disease, these analyses are ultimately limited and can fail to reveal the full genetic cause. WGS, in contrast, overcomes such limitations and can detect all relevant variants and variant types within a single step and method.
Most research on genetic diseases has been heavily biased towards mutations in gene coding regions, but this is about only 1-2% of a patient’s entire genome. Numerous clinical studies now exist which demonstrate the critical role of non-coding sequence variants as well.
Why Choose CentoGenome®?
Excellent genome coverage and uniformity
End-to-end bioinformatics analysis
Validation of the sequencing results
Detailed clinical reports
CentoGenome® – Key Features
WGS captures the broadest scope of genetic alterations causing a disease in one single test – single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions (InDels), structural variants (SVs), including large copy number variations (CNVs), and thus providing the most comprehensive variant analysis.
|Variants||SNVs and InDels|
|SVs and CNVs|
DOWNLOADS FOR WHOLE GENOME SEQUENCING
CentoGenome® - Case study
CentoGenome® Solo - Sample report, positiveDownload
CentoGenome® Trio - Sample report index, positiveDownload
CentoGenome® Trio - Sample report parent 1, positiveDownload
CentoGenome® Trio - Sample report parent 2, positiveDownload
When is CentoGenome® Recommended ?
CentoGenome® is recommended especially for the diagnosis of patients with heterogeneous phenotypes, unclear or atypical clinical symptoms, or with a long list of prior differential diagnoses, or who have exhausted other genetic testing options.
Clinical or genetic heterogeneity
Genetic diseases with similar presentations related to many causal genes: similar phenotype – many genes
Diseases or patients with atypical clinical presentations or phenotypes
From the clinical perspective it is difficult to select a specific gene or group of genes
Patients with ‘blended’ clinical presentations and clinical suspicion of dual diagnosis
These cases also pose a challenge in the interpretation of the results
Patients with clear genetic disease and previous genetic testing is negative
Suspected of a microdeletion or microduplication syndrome
Suspected mitochondrial disease
Previous WES testing is negative
Patients and families with relevant genetic burden and want to have cutting-edge science to pursue genetic diagnosis, offering the most complete genetic test
CentoGenome® – Tailor the Analysis to Your Patient's Needs
|Options and Packages|
|Turnaround time||Standard||≤20 business days|
|FAST||≤15 business days|
|Number of samples||Solo, Duo and Trio||Yes|
|Reanalysis and reinterpretation||At low cost in case of uncertain or negative results||Yes|
Clinical Anamnesis and Reporting
Conclusive clinical reports
In WGS, data analysis and identifying the disease-underlying variant(s) among a large number of variants is still a challenge. With CentoGenome®, we can help you to diagnose complex and unsolved cases of genetic origin, by finding the clinically important variants. CentoGenome® combines our expertise in bioinformatics and clinical interpretation, with our proprietary variant database CentoMD® and world-class experience in rare disease diagnostics.
We analysed tens of thousands of clinical genomes or exomes from patients worldwide. This experience and variant information is integrated and reflected in CentoMD®, which is the largest mutation database of rare genetic diseases. In combination with a solid anamnesis and description of symptoms, this is the foundation of our high diagnostic rates.
- Detailed evaluation of patient’s clinical information and family history
- Clear results of identified variants that can explain the phenotype
- Variant classification following international best-practice guidelines (ACMG)1,2
- Comprehensive medical interpretation
- Recommendations for differential diagnoses or follow-up analyses for specific diseases
- References to publications supporting the medical and scientific results
- Detailed description of the genetic testing method, and coverage report of genes
- Report of research variants or incidental findings (optional)
For high-quality interpretation of the data, it is crucial to obtain specific and detailed clinical information about the index patient and ideally also further family members when performing whole genome sequencing. This can increase the diagnostic yield to significantly over 40%3.
CENTOGENE does report on findings not directly related to the cause of a disease only upon request and only for genes listed in the ACMG guidelines2.
Kalia SS, Adelman K, Bale SJ, et al. (2017). Recommendations for reporting of secondary findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing, 2016 update (ACMG SF v2.0): A policy statement of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Genet Med. 19(2):249-255. doi:10.1038/gim.2016.190Data on file at CENTOGENE
Green RC, Berg JS, Grody WW, et al. (2013). ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing. Genet Med. 15(7):565-574. doi:10.1038/gim.2013.73
Data on file at CENTOGENE
Progeria, the phenomenon of premature aging, is an ultra-rare genetic condition. A recent study reported mutations in MTX2 as the cause of a novel progeroid syndrome and revealed mitochondrial dysfunction as contributing to the pathophysiology in progeria. The study, which utilized CENTOGNE’s…
For a few genes, mono-allelic gain-of-function mutations as well as bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations have been found to cause disease. Based on findings in a large consanguineous family with multiple stillbirths, KIDINS220 can now be added to this list. A corresponding study, which was…
A given genetic disorder is usually associated with numerous distinct mutations in the underlying gene. For a novel neurodegenerative syndrome, however, only a single TRAPPC4 variant seems to be causative. A cohort of 23 pertinent patients, many of which were identified at CENTOGENE, was published…