1. Posterior versus Anterior Circulation Stroke in Young Adults: A Comparative Study of Stroke Aetiologies and Risk Factors in Stroke among Young Fabry Patients

Posterior versus Anterior Circulation Stroke in Young Adults: A Comparative Study of Stroke Aetiologies and Risk Factors in Stroke among Young Fabry Patients

Bettina von Sarnowski, MD 1 Prof. Ulf Schminke, MD 1 Ulrike Grittner, PhD 2 Prof. Christian Tanislav, MD 3 Tobias Böttcher, PhD 4, 5 Prof. Michael Hennerici, MD 6 Turgut Tatlisumak 7, 8, 9 Prof. Jukka Putaala 7 Prof. Manfred Kaps, MD 3 Prof. Franz Fazekas, MD 10 Christian Enzinger, MD 10 Prof. Arndt Rolfs, MD 4 Prof. Christof Kessler, MD 1
1 Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald 2 Charité-University, Berlin 3 Justus Liebig University Giessen 4 University of Rostock 5 Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Klinikum, Neubrandenburg 6 University of Heidelberg 7 University of Helsinki 8 Sahlgrenska University Hospital 9 University of Gothenburg 10 Medical University of Graz
February 15, 2017

Cerebrovasc Dis 2017;43:152–160. DOI: 10.1159/000454840

Abstract:

Background
Although 20-30% of all strokes occur in the posterior circulation, few studies have explored the characteristics of patients with strokes in the posterior compared to the anterior circulation so far. Especially data on young patients is missing.

Methods
In this secondary analysis of data of the prospective multi-centre European sifap1 study that investigated stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients aged 18-55 years, we compared vascular risk factors, stroke aetiology, presence of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cerebral microbleeds (CMB) between patients with ischaemic posterior circulation stroke (PCS) and those having suffered from anterior circulation stroke (ACS) based on cerebral MRI.

Results
We diagnosed PCS in 612 patients (29.1%, 407 men, 205 women) and ACS in 1,489 patients (70.9%). Their age (median 46 vs. 47 years, p = 0.205) and stroke severity (modified Rankin Scale: both 2, p = 0.375, Barthel Index 90 vs. 85, p = 0.412) were similar. PCS was found to be more frequent among the male gender (66.5 vs. 60.1% with ACS, p = 0.003). Vertebral artery (VA) dissection was more often the cause of PCS (16.8%) than was carotid artery dissection of ACS (7.9%, p < 0.001). Likewise, small vessel disease (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment [TOAST] = 3, PCS: 14.7%, ACS: 11.8%) and stroke of other determined aetiology (TOAST = 4, PCS: 24.5%, ACS: 16.0%) were more frequent in those with PCS. Furthermore, patent foramen ovale (PFO; PCS: 31.1%, ACS: 25.4%, p = 0.029) was more often detected in patients with PCS. In contrast, large-artery atherosclerosis (TOAST = 1, PCS: 15.4%, ACS: 22.2%) and cardio-embolic stroke (TOAST = 2, PCS: 15.6%, ACS: 18.0%) were less frequent in those with PCS (p < 0.001) as were preceding cerebrovascular events (10.1 vs. 14.1%, p = 0.014), TIA (4.8 vs. 7.7%, p = 0.016) and smoking (53.2 vs. 61.0%, p = 0.001). The presence, extent, and location of WMH and CMB did not differ between the 2 groups.

Conclusions
Our data suggested a different pattern of aetiology and risk factors in young patients with PCS compared to those with ACS. These findings especially call for a higher awareness of VA dissection and potentially for more weight of a PFO as a risk factor in young patients with PCS. Clinical trial registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00414583.