Genetic testing for cardiovascular indications
Testing for a wide range of cardiovascular diseases including congenital heart malformations. Timely detection and diagnosis of heart disorders can transform patient care and save lives.
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Symptoms relate to a genetic cause
Cardiovascular diseases include diseases of the heart and blood vessels, and they are the leading cause of death in the world, affecting millions of people worldwide. Many factors contribute to the risk of developing heart disease and so far many inherited cardiovascular diseases are known, including cardiac arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies, aortic aneurysms and others. Family history and genetics play a central role in these diseases. In addition, a patient’s genetic makeup can influence risk stratification, therapy selection and predicted response. The occurrence of all known modes of inheritance including complex- multigenic, reduced penetrance and highly variable clinical manifestations, even among individuals from a single family, complicate clinical diagnosis. Early diagnostic procedures, such as genetic testing, could be lifesaving.
- Individuals presenting with the most common symptoms of cardiovascular disease
- Individuals with a positive family history of cardiovascular disease or sudden (unexplained) death
- Individuals without a positive family history but with symptoms resembling the specific disease indication
- Individuals with a negative, but suspected, family history, in order to perform genetic counseling
Confirmation of a clinical diagnosis through genetic testing allows for genetic counseling and may lead to immediate medical management. For each presented case and phenotype, a full medical report will be produced including a tailored diagnostic strategy, recommendations and a differential diagnosis, if applicable.
Clinical symptoms are not always the results of the same gene or genetic variation; any diagnosis is determined as a combination of the in-depth clinical information provided and the identified genetic variants. Specific gene panels, testing of single genes or even whole exome/genome sequencing can be applied.
What do we know about inherited cardiovascular diseases?
Enormous progress has been made in the identification of genes involved in the etiology of inherited cardiovascular diseases. As examples, gene mutations have been identified in approximately two-thirds of cases of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, nearly the same number in cases of dilated cardiomyopathy, and most instances of familial cardiac arrhythmias.
Cardiomyopathies encompass a broad range of diseases which manifest as a primary cardiac disorder or as a cardiomyopathy secondary to systemic disease. Cardiomyopathy can be classified into five clinical phenotypes based upon morphological and functional characteristics: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM); dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM); restrictive cardiomyopathy; arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy; and unclassified cardiomyopathy, including left ventricular (LV) noncompaction. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1:500; dilated has a prevalence of 1:2,500; and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy 1:1,000-5,000. Genetic testing in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with cardiomyopathy allows the identification of causal variants in more than 70% of children1. Cardiomyopathy can also be a presenting feature of other inherited disorders, such as Danon disease, Fabry disease, mitochondrial myopathy, or muscular dystrophy. Hereditary cardiomyopathy can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, or mitochondrial manner. Rare variants in >30 genes, some also involved in muscular dystrophy or syndromic diseases, affect a diverse set of important myocardial proteins to produce a final cardiomyopathy phenotype.
Cardiac arrhythmias can lead to syncope, cardiac arrest and sudden death. They present in an isolated form or as part of another cardiac disease, for example cardiomyopathies. Some of the more frequent cardiac arrhythmias are long/short QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and atrial fibrillation. They are mainly inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, with de novo mutations occurring in some cases.
Aortic aneurysms and related diseases are characterized by the occurrence of dilatations, aneurysms and dissections occurring in the aorta or any of the main branches of the arterial tree. They are usually classified as syndromic and non-syndromic forms (familiar thoracic aneurysms and dissections, FTAAD). Among the syndromic forms are Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome2,3. They are mostly inherited as autosomal dominant disorders, with de novo mutations occurring in a proportion of the cases. Early diagnosis is relevant for timely treatment and prevention of fatal complications such as arterial dissection/rupture.
Congenital heart diseases (CHD) account for ~1% of all live births per year and the prevalence is increasing. About 25% of all newborns affected with congenital heart disease have a critical or life-threatening condition and they need immediate surgical or other treatment. Most CHD have a multifactorial etiology, which has complicated the identification of contributing genes4. Congenital heart malformations occur in several genetic syndromes reflecting the multiple genes involved in the development of the cardiovascular system (syndromic CHD). Noonan syndrome, Alagille syndrome and Holt-Oram syndrome are known examples.
Latest Scientific Articles on Cardiology
Cardiomyopathies are disorders with primary abnormalities in the structure and function of the heart. Dilated cardiomyopathy is defined by the presence of left ventricular dilatation and resulting contractile dysfunction. Genetic mutations involving genes that encode cytoskeletal, sarcomere, and…
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a global disease with cases reported in all continents, affecting people of both sexes and of various racial and ethnic origins. The incidence of HCM is approximately 1 in 500 in the general population. HCM is most commonly caused by pathogenic variants in one of…
Sudden unexplained death is a major source of mortality in developed countries; the major causes (in the absence of the structural heart disease) are primary cardiac arrhythmia syndromes or electrical cardiac diseases ('channelopathies').
What can CENTOGENE do for you and your patients?
CENTOGENE has identified genetic variants associated with cardiology diseases in more than 450 different genes.
In CentoMD®, the world’s largest mutation database for rare diseases, 57% of which is made up of unpublished variants, we have carefully created and documented all variants that have clinical relevance for related symptoms supporting the precise diagnosis of a cardiovascular disease.
The four main categories of genetic cardiovascular disease with some regularly encountered examples
Downloads for Cardiovascular diseases
Cardiomyopathy panel – facts and figures
Cardiomyopathy is defined as a disease of the heart muscle and has many different presentation.
LQTS panel - facts and figures
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the ECG and the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP).
Find the right genetic tests for cardiologic diseases in our test catalogue
- Arrhythmia, hereditary panel
AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, CACNB2, CASQ2,...
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy panel
DSP, DSG2, DSC2, JUP, PKP2, RYR2, TGFB3,...
- Brugada syndrome panel
CACNA1C, CACNB2, GPD1L, HCN4, KCNE3,...
- Cardiomyopathy dilated panel
ABCC9, ACTC1, ACTN2, ANKRD1, BAG3,...
- Cardiomyopathy hypertrophic panel
ACTC1, ACTN2, ANKRD1, CALR3, CAV3,...
- Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia panel
RYR2, CASQ2, KCNJ2
- Comprehensive pulmonary disease panel
ABCA3, ACVRL1, AP3B1, ASCL1, BDNF,...
- Congenital heart defects panel
CFC1, CITED2, CRELD1, FOXH1, GATA4,...
- Long QT syndrome panel
AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, CALM1, CALM2,...
- Pulmonary hypertension panel
ACVRL1, BMPR1B, BMPR2, CAV1, EIF2AK4,...
Single Gene Analysis
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 1
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 10
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 11
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 12
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 5
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 8
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy type 9
- Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia type 2
- Atrial fibrillation type 10
- Atrial fibrillation type 11
- Atrial fibrillation type 12
- Atrial fibrillation type 3
- Atrial fibrillation type 4
- Atrial fibrillation type 6
- Atrial fibrillation type 7
- Atrial septal defect type 3
- Atrial septal defect type 4
- Atrial septal defect type 5
- Atrial septal defect type 8
- Atrial septal defect type 9
- Atrioventricular septal defect type 4
- Atrioventricular septal defect type 5
- Barth syndrome
- Brugada syndrome type 1
- Brugada syndrome type 2
- Brugada syndrome type 3
- Brugada syndrome type 4
- Brugada syndrome type 5
- Brugada syndrome type 6
- Brugada syndrome type 7
- Brugada syndrome type 8
- Cardiac valvular dysplesia, X-linked
- Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency
- Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency type 2
- Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency type 3
- Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome
- Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome
- Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome type 3
- Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome type 4
- Cardiomyopathy, apical hypertrophic, and neuropathy, MT-ATP8 related
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1A
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1BB
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1C
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1D
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1E
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1EE
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1G
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1GG
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1HH
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1I
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1J
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1KK
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1L
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1M
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1N
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1O
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1P
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1R
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1S
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1T
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1U
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1W
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1X
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1Y
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 1Z
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 2A
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated type 3B
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism
- Cardiomyopathy, dilated with woolly hair and keratoderma
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 1
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 10
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 11
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 12
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 2
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 3
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 4
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 6
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 7
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 8
- Cardiomyopathy, familial hypertrophic type 9
- Cardiomyopathy, familial restrictive type 1
- Cardiomyopathy, fatal, MT-TI related
- Cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic, MT-TG related
- Cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic, type 18
- Cardiomyopathy, idiopathic dilated, mitochondrial, MT-TH related
- Cardiomyopathy, infantile hypertrophic, MT-ATP8 related
- Cardiomyopathy, left ventricular noncompaction, MYH7B related
- Central hypoventilation syndrome with or without Hirschsprung disease
- Central hypoventilation syndrome, congenital
- Coronary heart disease, susceptibility to, type 6
- Danon disease
- Dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair, keratoderma, and tooth agenesis
- Familial atrial fibrillation type 13
- Heart block, progressive, familial, type 1A
- Heart-hand syndrome, Slovenian type
- Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome type 1
- Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome type 2
- Long QT syndrome type 1
- Long QT syndrome type 10
- Long QT syndrome type 11
- Long QT syndrome type 12
- Long QT syndrome type 13
- Long QT syndrome type 2
- Long QT syndrome type 3
- Long QT syndrome type 4
- Long QT syndrome type 5
- Long QT syndrome type 6
- Long QT syndrome type 8
- Long QT syndrome type 9
- Marfan syndrome
- MASS syndrome
- McKusick-Kaufman syndrome
- MELAS syndrome
- MELAS syndrome
- MELAS syndrome, MT-TL1 related
- MERRF/MELAS overlap syndrome, MT-TS1 related
- MERRF/MELAS overlap syndrome, MT-TS2 related
- Mitochondrial myopathy and sideroblastic anemia type 1
- Mitochondrial myopathy, infantile, transient, MT-TE related
- Mitochondrial myopathy, isolated
- Mitochondrial myopathy, MT-TA related
- Mitochondrial myopathy, MT-TM related
- Moyamoya disease type 5
- Multisystemic smooth muscle dysfunction syndrome
- Myopathy, MT-TQ related
- Myopathy, tubular aggregate, type 2
- Pancreatic agenesis and congenital heart defects
- Pulmonary newborn hypertension
- Pulmonary venoocclusive disease type 2
- Sengers syndrome
- Short QT syndrome type 1
- Short QT syndrome type 2
- Short QT syndrome type 3
- Sick sinus syndrome type 1
- Sick sinus syndrome type 3
- Sinoatrial node dysfunction and deafness
- Sudden infant death syndrome, susceptibility to
- Sudden infant death with dysgenesis of the testes syndrome
- Testicular anomalies with or without congenital heart disease
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Tetralogy of Fallot
- Thoracic aortic aneurysm dissection
- Transposition of the great arteries, dextro-looped 1
- Ventricular fibrillation, paroxysmal familial type 1
- Ventricular septal defect type 1
- Ventricular septal defect type 2
- Ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic type 1
- Ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic type 2
- Wolff -Parkinson-White syndrome
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- Kindel SJ, Miller EM, Gupta R, Cripe LH, Hinton RB, Spicer RL, Towbin JA, Ware SM. Pediatric Cardiomyopathy: Importance of Genetic and Metabolic Evaluation. Journal of Cardiac Failure. 2012 May;18(5): 396-403.
- Verstraeten A, Alaerts M, Van Laer L, Loeys, B. Marfan Syndrome and Related Disorders: 25 Years of Gene Discovery. Human Mutation, 2016 Jun;37(6): 524-531.
- Bertoli-Avella AM et al. Mutations in a TGF-β ligand, TGFB3, cause syndromic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Home | Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2015 Apr 7;65(13):1324-36.
- French VM et al. NPHP4 variants are associated with pleiotropic heart malformations. Circulation Research. 2012 Jun 8;110(12):1564-74 .